External Resources

We have identified a number of resources from external sources which are related to the GEM approach and may be useful when working on markets-based livelihoods. 

 Resources on Women's Economic Leadership (WEL)

Resources on Power in Markets

Resources on Adaptation and Risk Reduction (ARR)

DFID, the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and Social Development Direct have published a report on evaluation methods for assessing women and girls’ economic empowerment.  The report uses principles taken from systematic reviews: gathering 254 empirical studies, narrowing them down through quality scoring and then reviewing the 70 shortlisted reports.  The report doesn’t focus on findings but methods – asking ‘what makes for a quality evaluation (report) that measures impact on women and girls’ economic empowerment?’  It also provides some idea of the landscape, in terms of who is commissioning these evaluations, and on what topics.

  • SNV, Gender Mainstreaming in Value Chain Development

    Jacqueline Terrillon

    This paper explores the importance of integrating gender perspective and gender analysis into all aspects of development work.

    • SSIReview, The Next Stage of Financial Inclusion

      Dean Karlan

      According to this paper, research indicates that the needs and habits of the poor shows that nonprofits continue to serve a vital function when it comes to bringing financial services to those who need them most even though for-profit companies took over large swaths of that newly created market.

      • UN Foundation, A Roadmap for Women's Economic Empowerment

        This report identifies proven, promising and high-potential interventions that increase productivity and earnings for women of various economic and country contexts.

        UN Foundation, Women’s Economic Empowerment in Agriculture: Supporting Women Farmers

        Cheryl Doss, Zoe BockiusSuwyn and Shereen D’Souza

        Drawing on a range of experiences from current interventions, this paper seeks to identify strategies that are most effective in targeting women and that have the potential to economically empower women in the agricultural sector. The report will form one section of a larger roadmap on women's empowerment which is being put together by the UN Foundation and the ExxonMobil Foundation.

        USAID, Integrating Gender Issues into Agricultural Value Chains

        An extensive list of publications including regionally-specific reports, methodologies and case studies relating to the Greater Access to Trade Expansion (GATE) initiative, which focuses on helping poor communities and women to take advantage of the opportunities offered by globalisation.

        World Bank, Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

        The Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook is a joint project of the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The Sourcebook aims to deliver practical advice, guidelines, principles, and descriptions and illustrations of the approaches that have achieved the goal of effective gender mainstreaming in the agriculture operation of development agencies.

        World Bank, Gender Issues in Monitoring and Evaluation in Agriculture

        A toolkit for integrating gender issues into the monitoring and evaluation stages of agricultural development. 

      • Women's World Banking,  The Select Five Gender Performance Indicators

        Financial inclusion for women needs to go beyond rhetoric. In order to help make it a reality, Women’s World Banking developed financial and social performance indicators to enable financial institutions to measure how well they are serving women clients and staff, while also building the business case for serving women. 

      • Resources on Power in Markets

      • Agriculture for Impact and the Overseas Development Institute,  Leaping & Learning: Strategies for taking agricultural successes to scale

        Agriculture for Impact (A4I), the Overseas Development Institute (ODI), in conjunction with Firetail and the Glasshouse Partnership, have been working together on the Leaping and Learning project, which aims to provide development partners with access to independent, evidence-based recommendations that set out practical policy options and approaches for scaling up smallholder agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. 

        The two key reports are:

        CIAT, LINK methodology: A participatory guide to business models that link smallholders to markets

        Mark Lundy et al

        An extensive toolkit for building links between small-scale producers and modern markets, and establishing inclusive sustainable trading relationships.

      • Collier et al., Weather Index Insurance and Climate Change: Opportunities and Challenges in Lower Income Countries

      • This paper assesses the opportunities and challenges of weather index insurance insures against a weather event that is highly correlated with production loss as a proxy for individual loss. In other words, it provides insurance against the impact of a specific hazard on the production outcome. For example, one of the first weather index insurance programmes in a lower income country began in India and insured against drought for groundnut farmers as assessed by rainfall measurements. This instrument should reduce costs over traditional agricultural insurance and enhance the ability of stakeholders in lower income countries to adapt to climate change.

      • Dalberg, Catalyzing Smallholder Agricultural Finance

      • This report identifies five main ways for increasing smallholder’s access to finance: (i) replicate and scale social lending, for example social lenders for cash-crop value chains can expand to new crops in geographic areas they already serve; (ii) innovate new financial products beyond short-term trade financing. Social lenders could expand to meet other financing needs, such as working capital, longer term financing of equipment and tree renovation and lending to individual organisation members; (iii) out-grower schemes that allow producer groups to rely on different buyers and to access credit from commercial lenders; (iv) unite farmers in producer or other organisations and (v) finance directly to farmers when farmers are not organized in groups, for example through mobile banking.

      • Practical Action, Participatory Market System Development

      • The PMSD Roadmap comprises a conceptual framework, step-by-step tools and training materials for implementing Participatory Market System Development (PMSD), a strategy focused on bringing key stakeholders together to make markets more inclusive, reduce poverty on a large scale and protect the environment.

      • Practical Action, What is Wrong with Micro-finance

      • The authors urge governments, bankers, donors and the general public involved in micro-finance to be aware of the risks of micro-finance and its potential to be actively damaging to its intended customers. The book shows for instance that micro-finance can impose heavy burdens on group members in terms of time, risk and loss of privacy. The authors engage with examples from Africa, India, Bosnia and Bolivia and approach the topic from different angles, writing for example about micro-finance and farmers, impact measurement, livelihood finance and sustainability of micro-finance.

      • UNDP, Building Tomorrow’s Markets

        A short overview of UNDP’s ‘Building Tomorrow’s Markets’ initiative - an alliance with donor and producer governments and companies like Kraft, Johnson & Johnson and IKEA, with the goal of scaling up sustainable production and improving policy reform and planning.

        Resources on Adaptation and Risk Reduction (ARR)

      ACCRA, Planning for an Uncertain Future - Promoting adaptation to climate change through Flexible and Forward-looking Decision Making

      This report documents the activities of the Africa Climate Change Resilience Alliance (ACCRA) in seeking to strengthen Flexible and Forward-looking Decision Making (FFDM) among district development actors. It describes research carried out while trialling an innovative and interactive tool to promote FFDM – a ‘game-enabled reflection approach’ – accompanied by capacity-building activities. ACCRA undertook case studies at the district level in three countries; Uganda, Ethiopia, and Mozambique. Building on these three case studies, this report outlines key findings and makes recommendations on how to better support decision-making processes for an uncertain future. It does so in view of helping to understand the use of FFDM as well as the effectiveness and limitations of a game-enabled reflection approach. 

      CARE Nederland, Groupe URD, Wageningen University, Reaching Resilience: Handbook Resilience 2.0 for Aid Practitioners and Policymakers

      This handbook explores links between Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Poverty Reduction (PR) in humanitarian and development programmes. It provides an understanding of the issues, key points, assessment and planning tools and proposed action for translating ‘resilience’ into practice. In line with Oxfam’s risk assessment approach, the handbook considers the identification and analysis of a community's 'risk landscape' a crucial initial step in getting the foundation right for building resilience.

      • CGIAR, Climate-smart agriculture Success Stories from farming communities around the world

      • This booklet showcases 16 initiatives that are having a widespread impact on food security, adaptation to climate change and climate change mitigation from developing and developed countries around the world. The initiatives include innovative agricultural interventions, initiatives that address climate-related and policies and institutions that underpin adaptation to and mitigation of climate change. The initiatives show the potential of agriculture to adapt to a changing climate, to be more resilient and protect farmers against future changes in weather patterns, pests and diseases and to slow the rate of climate change.

        ECB, Toward Resilience: A Guide to Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation

        This report provides guidelines for action, case studies and links to useful tools and resources, for the application of an integrated, rights-based approach to disaster reduction and climate change adaptation. The report highlights the needs of key vulnerable groups such as women, children, and high-risk communities and explains how DRR and CCA can be integrated into program cycle management.

      • IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) summary report on the physical science behind climate change 

        A synthesis of the last five year's worth of research on the physical science confirming that scientists are now 95% certain that the global warming that has happened since the 1950's has been caused by human activity.  It warns that come climate impacts that are happening now are happening much faster than had been anticipated.  And '12 takeaways from the IPCC report': http:/www.cgdev.org/blog/twelve-takeaways-ipcc-report 

      • IUCN, The Environment and Gender Index (EGI) 2013 Pilot

      • This report by the Global Gender Office of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) presents the newly developed Environment and Gender Index (EGI). The EGI assesses the conditions for women's empowerment in the environmental arena using 27 indicators divided into 6 categories for 72 countries. The goal of the EGI is to measure progress, improve information, enhance policy and program development, and ultimately empower countries to take steps forward for gender equality and for the environment.


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